Further down the list are lower-growth areas not served by urban rail at all, such as Rowvile and Doncaster. At best, you're looking at busways and Smart Buses for them.
Want to make new urban/suburban railways work? Make them pay for themselves. There are plenty of ways of doing it, big and small:
- Value capture through local land value levies/taxes (used quite a lot)
- Government or train operator-owned Transit Oriented Developments (aka the Japan/Hong Kong model)
- Cross-subsidies from congestion charges and tolling existing urban freeways (a hard sell but worth it)
- Lower government subsidies of full-price fares
- Charging for railway station parking, whilst providing alternatives - look at Perth, it's working: