If the above is correct, can someone please tell me what % power would be lost due to the above processes assuming a transmission distance of say 200 kms?
I don't know what voltage the trams run on, but for the rest of the trip, the vast majority of the line losses will be in the low voltage (240V/415V) section of the grid (assuming equal length line segments). For a given amount of power, increasing the voltage has a multiplier effect of reducing losses (increase voltage by 10 times, you reduce losses by about 100 times)
In the high voltage section of the Grid, AC has higher losses than DC, but not by much (you can send HVDC 1000km and lose about 1%-3%, and most of the losses in the HV section are in the equipment at each end of the line segment). Ambient temperature also plays a role.
We know the line losses aren't too bad because it's the system we use now. AMEO publishes
Distribution Loss Factors each year, and for each grid segment, they hover at just over 1% (LV grid segments are shorter than MV segments etc).
But the answer is 'it depends'.