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In 1903, British colonial administrator Sir Charles Norton Edgecumbe Eliot made a bold statement: "It is not uncommon for a country to create a railway, but it is uncommon for a railway to create a country."
The country was Kenya. The railway became known as the Lunatic Express.
Now 116 years later, another railway line has been built almost parallel to those same tracks in a bid to transform this part of Africa, but this time by a different world power: China.
Whether this railway will earn as colorful a moniker as that of the British endeavor remains to be seen.
At the close of the 19th century, Britain decided to build a railway line from the port of Mombasa on the Indian Ocean to its protectorate of Uganda, in a bid to lay claim to the land in between amid rumblings that the German and French empires were coming for it.
It was a herculean feat of engineering that bound a tapestry of disparate tribes into a nation. Kenya was born, but the human and financial toll was enormous.
For a start, the railway cost almost £650 million ($840 million), sparking outrage at home. Everything from the carriages to the silverware was shipped from Britain -- with little hope of the line ever being profitable.
An old train from the Lunatic Express on display at the Nairobi Railway Museum; a picture of a dead elephant on the old line; a lion tries to enter a carriage.
About 32,000 workers were brought from India to build 12,000 bridges and lay 4.8 million steel keys along the rails for the Uganda Railway, as it was officially called. The local tribes resisted it. And the wildlife was predatory. Lions dined on railway workers, pulling men from their tents at night.
In total, about 2,500 men died from the back-breaking labor and hostile conditions.
In 2014, the Kenyan government decided the aging line needed replacing and agreed to pay the state-owned China Road and Bridge Company (CRBC) about $3.6 billion to build, finance and, initially, operate a Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) between the capital of Nairobi and Mombasa, in a bid to fire-up the East African country's developing economy.
It was a huge gamble. Like its predecessor, the new railway line has been plagued by controversy, as well as accusations that it has resulted in huge debt to China it will take Kenya years to climb out of. But now China appears to be unwilling to fund further sections of the line, leaving a question mark over its future.
The Chinese-built railway line stretches from Mombasa to Nairobi. Pictured is an unopened section of line near Naivasha.
The Madaraka Express
A voice over a speaker politely advises passengers to look out the window as the Chinese-built Madaraka Express slices through some of Kenya's most dramatic landscapes at 120 kilometers per hour (75 miles per hour).
To the left, the Tsavo East National Park presents the sort of flat, yellow plains that giraffes are silhouetted against on postcards of Africa, while on the right the Tsavo West National Park yawns open, Mount Kilimanjaro visible in the distance. A dazzle of zebras idles by the tracks. Elephants are often spotted here, the guide says over the speaker.
It's a curious experience. This train line was not meant to be a safari.
"The Madaraka Express has caught us unaware," says Philip Jamuhuri Mainga, managing director of the state-owned Kenya Railways Corporation (KRC), referring to the name given to the passenger service. The train was an immediate sell-out, and a second daily service was provided, along with the tourist-friendly safari announcements. "Even that second train is fully booked," he says.
Elevated on huge concrete pillars, the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) can withstand Kenya's fast rains and huge elephants and is lined by wire fencing to ward off terrorists as much as the big game. Viaducts have been crafted so that families of large animals, such as giraffes, can pass under.
KRC claims the Madaraka Express has never once been late and has moved 2.7 million passengers since it opened in May 2017, 70% of whom are local tourists. Economy tickets cost 1,000 Kenyan shillings ($10) and at 4.5-hours, the ride hal