Taiwan has essentially two rail systems:
* a low speed 1067mm Narrow Gauge one, older.
* a high speed 1435mm Standard Gauge one, newer.
It is not clear which system in involved in the recent tunnel accident, though the large diameter of the tunnel suggests that is on the SG network.
While the NG system has CTC, it might not have any AWS.
The SG system might have ATP and coded track circuits pioneered by Japan, and France, and copied by other HS systems.
An important feature of the coded track circuits is that you can probably pull a link and enforce a temporary speed limit past the work site where the runaway truck caused so much trouble and so reduce the damage cause by that runaway.